Various Calculations mode in Excel

Various Calculations mode in Excel


is a property which determines mode of calculation in Excel. It Returns or sets an XlCalculation value that represents the calculation mode. There are three types calculation modes available in Excel which can be set as default by the user. By default Automatic Calculation is set. Apart from setting user given right to perform force Excel to perform calculation which is also called Hard Calculate. We will look into each in this article.

Set Calculation Mode:

  • Navigate Formulas tab
  • Locate Calculation group
  • Click Calculation Options dropdown
  • Select appropriate calculation mode

Calculation mode is an workbook level behavior which remains through out the workbook life until it is changed by the user.

Automatic: its default calculation made where excel determines when to perform calculations on a workbook like, when formulas are dragged or copied from one location to another, source of your tables are updated, some custom functions detects change in the argument supplied in etc.

Automatic Except for Data Tables: also known as Semi Calculation mode this mode determines that excel will perform automatic calculation as mentioned above but Data Tables will not change. If you want to refresh everything then you have to use hard refresh.

Manual: excel leaves changes to be updated in user’s hand this is useful when you are dealing lots of formulas in your sheet with bulk data. If excel sets to automatic mode in this scenario making one change will perform calculation over entire sheet and will take time which turns annoying.

Hard refresh: not matter what calculation mode set to, hard refresh override the calculation rule and perform real time calculations it can be classified as:

  • Calculate Now: this a method which forces Excel to ignore calculation mode and perform calculation immediately. It performs calculation over entire workbook.
  • Calculate sheet: this is similar to Calculate Now method but refresh scope remains to active sheet.
  • Calculate Full: it instructs excel to perform force calculation on all open workbook
  • Calculate Full and Rebuild: instructs excel to perform force calculation on all open workbooks and rebuild dependencies

Lets understand some code to automate the same using. Considering for Dot Net I am using VSTO using C# and VB style code:


  • Visual Studio 2015 or above having Microsoft Office for Developer Tool installed
  • Create Excel Addin in C# or VB code style (Visual Studio Tools for Office)
  • Excel 2010 or above
  • Create a ribbon designer and put button

C# code example: Calculation mode

private void btnCalculationMode_Click(object sender, RibbonControlEventArgs e)
	//auto calculaton mode
	Globals.ThisAddIn.Application.Calculation = excel.XlCalculation.xlCalculationAutomatic;
	//Semi calculation
	Globals.ThisAddIn.Application.Calculation = excel.XlCalculation.xlCalculationSemiautomatic;
	//Manual calculation
	Globals.ThisAddIn.Application.Calculation = excel.XlCalculation.xlCalculationManual;

C# code example: Hard Calculate

private void btnHardCalculate_Click(object sender, RibbonControlEventArgs e)
	//Hard calculate entire workbook

	//Full calculate

            //Calculate and rebuild

	//Get worksheet reference
	excel.Worksheet oWorksheet = Globals.ThisAddIn.Application.ActiveSheet;
	//calculate sheet

VB.Net code example: Calculation mode

Private Sub btnCalculationMode_Click(sender As Object, e As RibbonControlEventArgs) Handles btnCalculationMode.Click

	'Auto calculation
	'Semi calculation
	'Manual calculation
End Sub

VB.Net code example: Hard calculation

Private Sub btnHardCalculate_Click(sender As Object, e As RibbonControlEventArgs) Handles btnRemoveArrows.Click

	'Calculate workbook
	'Calculate full
	'Rebuld all dependencies
	'Bind worksheet object reference
	Dim oWorkSheet as excel.Worksheet
	oWorkSheet = Globals.ThisAddIn.Application.ActiveSheet
	'Calculate worksheet
End Sub

VBA code example: Calculation mode

Public Sub CalculationMode()
    'Automatic calculation mode
    Application.Calculation = xlAutomatic
    'Semiannual mode
    Application.Calculation = xlSemiautomatic
    'Manual mode
    Application.Calculation = xlManual
End Sub

VBA code example: Hard refresh

Public Sub HardRefresh()

    'Force sheet calculate
    'Hard calculate
    'Full calculate
    'Calculate rebuild
End Sub

Next >> Refresh All in Excel

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